Earth Bar Fundamentals

Electrical power systems are responsible for delivering electricity from generators to the end-consumer. Protection of these systems is necessary to ensure safety of personnel, to protect expensive assets and to ensure continuity of supply.

Earthing System Design in AC Substations: IEEE STD 80 Requirements

Within electrical substations, a distance should be maintained between any energised conductor and any other part of the substation, including the earth.

The Importance of an Earth Bar in the Earthing System

Numerous standards and regulations have been proposed in order to guarantee the safety of people and the installation of electrical appliances. In fact, electrical shock, known as electrocution, is at the top of the list of domestic accidents.

Requirements for a Safe Earthing System in AC Substations

Under fault events, current flows through the earthing system causing an earth potential rise (EPR), also known as ground potential rise (GPR), and results in a non-uniform distribution of the potential on the earth surface.

AC Substations and Earthing System Fundamentals

Energy consumption needs are expanding rapidly around the globe in the recent decades. Indeed, there are many reasons behind this enthusiasm such as the increase in population as well as the rise in commercial and industrial activities.

Why Lightning Protection Demands Will Increase in the GCC

Lightning consists of an electric discharge in a long air-gap involving an electrostatic phenomenon of breakdown of the air between cloud and earth. In this case, it is clear that an enormous voltage is involved, which means a huge amount of energy.

Earthing Resistance and Some Influencing Factors

Human-beings, animals and structures are potentially exposed to several types of electric threat of different characteristics. The main are direct lightning strikes and the consequences resulting from the discharges.

The Design of an External Lightning Protection System

An effective lightning protection system is mainly composed of two forms (i.e., internal and external) of protection systems, depending on their functionality. External lightning protection systems include different design methodologies to protect structures or buildings, as well as open areas and people from direct lightning strikes.

Lightning Protection Systems

For safety reasons, lightning protection systems must also react to any induced electrical potential such as that developed on the ground surface around the point of current injection. Therefore, the protection system may differ from one system to another according to multiple factors such as the system to be protected and transient source.

Characteristics of Lightning Discharges

Lightning is mostly a consequence of the development of a convective weather system to a certain magnitude, with strong links to the development of discharge processes within the system. An air volume can be uplifted in an unstable convective condition, taking part in the development of cumulonimbus.

The Understanding of Lightning Discharge Mechanisms

Every day, an average of around 8 million lightning strikes discharges over the earth, which is the equivalent of about 100 lightning bolts that strike the Earth’s surface every second. Lightning detection and monitoring are very important to improve public safety, warn of potential wildfires, and protect electrical systems.

Reduction of Earthing Resistance

A requirement is to ensure that buildings are provided with lightning and surge protection systems in accordance with national and international standards. There are a large number of ways in which lightning and surges can interact with electronic equipment

Conductive Aggregates and Earth Resistivity

Conductive Aggregates help achieve a low resistant Earth Termination Network reading, but Marconite is the best all-around performer.

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Down to Earth keeps you updated and explains all things related to Earthing and Lightning Protection. We care about keeping you and your structures safe, and to do so, we ask our top specialists to share some of their know-how regarding products and installations. We are always ready to get Down to Earth! We’ve got you covered! Make sure to subscribe to our newsletter to keep up with our latest articles and information about lightning protection.

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